Friday, May 22, 2020

Xerox Is A Leading Business Process Outsourcing - 1068 Words

Frame: Overview Xerox is a leading business process outsourcing and document management technology and services firm operating out of 180 countries around the world. In 2014, Xerox reported year end revenues of $19,540 million, down 2.3% from 2013, and a net profit of $969 million, up 17.7% from 2013. Xerox’s operations are broken down in to several main segments: Business Process Outsourcing (BPO): Xerox business process outsourcing services provide support functions such as customer care, transaction processing, finance and accounting, and human resources to a broad range of firms and organizations. The BPO services segment is focused on providing support functions to select business groups and industries including healthcare, commercial industries, public sector, and government healthcare. Through its healthcare provider solutions, the firm supports health providers operating in varying capacities to better access patient data, comply with industry regulations, reduce administrative costs, and provide better healthcare services. To commercial and public sector entities, Xerox provides support with transportation and logistics, electronic toll collection, parking management, health and human services, administrative support, and various taxation related functions. Xerox also offers many of these services across major global markets. Document Outsourcing: In its document outsourcing capacity Xerox offers both managed print services and centralized print services.Show MoreRelatedXerox Is A Leading Business Process Outsourcing1570 Words   |  7 Pages1: Frame: A: Overview Xerox is a leading business process outsourcing and document management technology and services firm operating out of 180 countries around the world. In 2014, Xerox reported year end revenues of $19,540 million, down 2.3% from 2013, and a net profit of $969 million, up 17.7% from 2013. Xerox’s operations are broken down in to several main segments: Business Process Outsourcing (BPO): Xerox business process outsourcing services provide support functions such as customer careRead MoreXerox Is A Leading Business Process Outsourcing1570 Words   |  7 Pages1: Frame: A: Overview Xerox is a leading business process outsourcing and document management technology and services firm operating out of 180 countries around the world. In 2014, Xerox reported year end revenues of $19,540 million, down 2.3% from 2013, and a net profit of $969 million, up 17.7% from 2013. 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Duke Dr. Eddie Montgomery Leadership and Organizational Behavior June 9, 2013 It is rare nowadays for a person to become the top ranking executive at the same company they intern with. Ursula Burns did just that by doing a summer internship with Xerox Corporation, and going on to become the CEO twenty-nine years later. Ursula Burns was the first African-American women to be name CEO of a Fortune 500 company, andRead MoreCase Analysis : Kodak And Nokia810 Words   |  4 Pagesindicate more than 80% of the executive at large companies recognize the need for transformation. The article points out the five fault line principles that consist of the customer needs, performance metrics, industry position, business models and capability. No business can survives over the long term without reinvest itself. Kodak and Nokia is a typically example, company should understand their internal and external factors, and do the appropriate adjustments and reinvesting attempt. It may takeRead MoreManagement Function Controlling1653 Words   |  7 Pages The function s of management uniquely describe managers jobs. The most commonly cited functions of management are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling, although some identify additional functions. The functions of management define the process of management as distinct from accounting, finance, marketing, and other business functions. These functions provide a useful way of classifying information about management, and most basic management texts since the 1950s have beenRead MoreBenchmarking at Xerox4503 Words   |  19 PagesXEROX - THE BENCHMARKING STORY Source link: http://www.icmrindia.org/free%20resources/casestudies/xerox-benchmarking-5.htm The case examines the benchmarking initiatives taken by Xerox, one of the world s leading copier companies, as a part of its Leadership through Quality program during the early 1980s. The case discusses in detail the benchmarking concept and its implementation in various processes at Xerox. It also explores the positive impact of benchmarking practices on Xerox. BenchmarkingRead MoreCanon Case2196 Words   |  9 PagesJapanese company to a major part of the photocopier market and a challenger of Xerox through its company values and strategies. The company’s CEO always had the future of the company in mind and never lost sight of the company’s long term goals as they began to produce a small, cheaper photocopier. One of Canon s main strategies was to decentralize the organization by creating individual business units. Each business unit had its own decision-making function. This strategy allowed Canon to sell

Sunday, May 10, 2020

Phrase Structure Grammar Definition and Explanation

Phrase structure grammar is a type of generative grammar in which constituent structures are represented by phrase structure rules or rewrite rules. Some of the different versions of phrase structure grammar (including head-driven phrase structure grammar) are considered in examples and observations below. A phrase structure (or constituent) functions as the base component in the classic form of transformational grammar introduced by Noam Chomsky in the late 1950s. Since the mid-1980s, however, lexical-function grammar (LFG), categorial grammar (CG), and head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) have developed into well-worked-out alternatives to transformational grammar Examples and Observations The underlying structure of a sentence or a phrase is sometimes called its phrase structure or phrase marker. . . . Phrase-structure rules provide us with the underlying syntactic structure of sentences we both produce and comprehend. . . .There are different types of phrase-structure grammar. Context-free grammars contain only rules that are not specified for particular contexts, whereas context-sensitive grammars can have rules that can only be applied in certain circumstances. In a context-free rule, the left-hand symbol can always be rewritten by the right-hand one regardless of the context in which it occurs. For example, the writing of a verb in its singular or plural form depends on the context of the preceding noun phrase. Rewrite Rules The idea of a PSG [phrase structure grammar] is simple. We first note what syntactic categories appear to exist in a given language, and what different internal structures each of these can have. Then, for each such structure, we write a rule that displays that structure. So, for example, an English sentence  typically consists of a noun phrase followed by a verb phrase (as in My sister bought a car), and we, therefore, write a phrase-structure rule as follows: S→NP VP This says that a sentence may consist of a noun phrase followed by a verb phrase. . . . We continue in this way until we have a rule for every structure in the language.Now the set of rules can be used to generate sentences. Starting with S (for sentence), we apply some suitable rule to tell us what units the sentence consists of, and then to each of those units we apply a further rule to tell us what units it consists of, and so on. A phrase structure grammar consists of a set of ordered rules known as rewrite rules, which are applied stepwise. A rewrite rule has a single symbol on the left and one or more symbols on the right: A→BCC→D More than one symbol on the right constitutes a string. The arrow is read as is rewritten as, has as its constituents, consists of, or is expanded as. The plus sign is read as followed by, but it is often omitted. The rule may also be depicted in the form of a tree diagram...The phrase structure rules also allow for choices. The optional choices are indicated with parentheses: A→(B)C This rule reads that A is expanded as optionally B and obligatorily C. In every rewrite rule, at least one element must be obligatory. There may also be mutually exclusive choices of elements in a string; these are indicated with curly braces:   A→{B,C} This rule states that if you choose B, you cant choose C, but you must choose one—either B or C, but not both. Whether the mutually exclusive items are written on one line separated by commas or on separate lines does not matter, as long as they occur within braces. Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) Head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) has evolved as a synthesis of ideas from a number of theoretical sources, including generalized phrase structure grammar (GPSG), categorial grammar, and formal theories of data structure representation . . .. HPSG uses a fundamental theoretical strategy made familiar by GPSG: the enumeration of a class of objects, corresponding to expressions of some natural language, and a set of constraints whose interaction enforces the appropriate covariation of formal properties reflecting the dependencies that any grammar of that language must capture.A head-driven phrase structure grammar of some language defines the set of signs (form/meaning/correspondences) which that language comprises. The formal entities that model signs in HPSG are complex objects called feature structures, whose form is limited by a set of constraints--some universal and some language parochial. The interaction of these constraints defines the grammatical structure of each su ch sign and the morphosyntactic dependencies which hold between its subcomponents. Given a specific set of such constraints, and a lexicon providing at least one feature structure description for each word in the language, an infinite number of signs is recursively characterized. Sources Borsley and Bà ¶rjars,  Non-Transformational Syntax, 2011.Laurel J. Brinton, The Structure of Modern English: A Linguistic Introduction. John Benjamins, 2000R.L. Trask, Language, and Linguistics: The Key Concepts, 2nd ed., edited by Peter Stockwell. Routledge, 2007Trevor A. Harley,  The Psychology of Language: From Data to Theory, 4th edition. Psychology Press, 2014Georgia M. Green and Robert D. Levine, Introduction to  Studies in Contemporary Phrase Structure Grammar. Cambridge University Press, 1999

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Child Observation Report Free Essays

string(29) " to answer simple questions\." Such studies are inducted by scientists or researchers wanting to study the behavior of an organism (including humans) in a natural setting. It can be useful in collecting data that clearly reflects the constraints of an organism’s normal environment and in the case where experimental techniques would be impractical or unethical. This report outlines the data collected during the sessions with each child. We will write a custom essay sample on Child Observation Report or any similar topic only for you Order Now Will refer to Piglet’s Cognitive Development Theory to demonstrate how it is useful in determining different stages of development. I will also outline my observations of both children in terms of where they fit in regards to Piglet’s Cognitive Development Theory. Setting My observations were of two siblings; a four year old girl and a five year old boy. I made arrangements to do the observation through a friend of mine, who has two children under the age of six. I have known this family for three years. The first observation was of the four year old girl (M), which took place on August 19, 2014 starting at 2:23 pm outside in the backyard of their home. Present was her older brother (T – 5 years old), her mother (J), a female friend of the family (C), a medium sized German shepherd, who is the family dog (K) and myself. The backyard was quite large with a large play center with a swing set attached. The sky was a little clouded over, but it was still warm outside. The adults were sitting on the deck around the patio table. The children were told was there to do some work. They did not really pay too much attention to me. I interacted a little with the adults at the table so that I did not seem out of place to the children. My presence did not seem to affect the children at all. Sat with my chair facing the whole backyard so that I could see the children at all times. The second observation was of the five ear old boy I made arrangements with the mother to do the second observation with this child later the same week. The observation took place on August 22, 2014 at 1:08 pm outside in the backyard of their home. This family is preparing to move in one week; therefore the backyard Was the best place to do the observation at the home. Present was his younger sister (M- 4 years old), his mother 0), a medium sized German shepherd, who is the family dog (K) and myself. The backyard was quite large with a large play center with a swing set attached. The sky was a little clouded over, but it was till warm outside. The mother and I were sitting on the deck around the patio table. The children were told I was there again to do some work. They again did not really pay too much attention to me. I interacted a little with their mother at the table so that did not seem out of place to the children. My presence did not seem to affect the children at all. Sat with my chair facing the whole backyard so that could see the children at all times. Results l. Self-concept: M pointed out that she did her hair all by herself when C arrived and M also showed C her new purse. M also shows the ability to scribe how she is feeling about her brother s actions, â€Å"l don ‘t like it when T hits me with his sword† or when she tells T, â€Å"I want to be alone right now†. . Gross Motor Skills: M demonstrated gross motor skills indicative off normal 4 year old. During the time of observation she displayed running around the backyard both with her brother and with the family dog, walking over to the play center, climbing over the chair on the deck, somersaults in the grass and jumping off the chair and off the family friend’s lap. Ill. Fine Motor Skills: M demonstrated normal fine motor skills. She cut open her fruit knack package with scissors without difficulty. She put on her own shoes (fastened believer) on the correct feet before going outside to play. IV. Vocal Language Development: M demonstrated the ability to form sentences more than 4 to 6 words. For example; â€Å"l told you I want to be alone†. She showed the ability to ask ‘Why ‘ questions. She shows an understanding of prepositions when her mother told her that her purse was behind her. She does, however have some grammatical difficulties and people other than her family do have difficulty deciphering what she is saying at times. According to ere mother she has been seen by a Speech Language Pathologist and will be working with them on her speech. V. Social Emotional Development: M showed a lot of interest in playing with her brother; however was also fine playing with the family dog as well. She appeared to really enjoy the imaginative play with her brother while playing the sword fight; however did upset easily if the game was not going her way and did change the rules quite a bit to her brother’s dismay. She was quite distracted by the family dog and tended to her a lot. She displayed some difficulty with moral reasoning on he swing set when she was calling her brother a â€Å"party pants† repeatedly until he got upset. When her brother kept getting in trouble instead of her she did not seem to be aware of his feelings when he was upset, instead she kept antagonizing him. VI. Cognitive Development: M understands the concept of grouping and matching as displayed when she was helping her mother with the puzzle and when taking items out of her purse. She also showed the ability to count from 1 to 10 when she was taking the items out of her purse. She showed the ability to identify secondary colors when showing the family friend her new â€Å"pink† purse. She was able to answer simple questions. You read "Child Observation Report" in category "Observation essays" She was also able to identify common objects and what they are used for; for example the family dogs ball, scissors, hat. Results (Child T) l. Gross Motor Skills: T demonstrated gross motor skills indicative of a normal 5 year old. During the time of observation he displayed running around the backyard, skipping, jumping, walking on just his hands, doing handstands, and hanging on the bars upside down on the play centre. II. Fine Motor Skills: T demonstrated normal fine motor skills. He put on his own shoes (fastened by velour) on the correct feet before going outside to play. He was able to use scissors to open his sour patch kids, which was his snack that afternoon. Ill. Vocal Language Development: T demonstrated the ability to form sentences more than 4 to 6 words. For example; â€Å"I’m goanna throw it really high†, â€Å"There is a wasp in your ear, Can I have friends over later†? He demonstrated the ability to ask â€Å"why† questions. He does not have any speech or grammatical difficulties. He appears to have met all of his developmental milestones for his age. VII. Social Emotional Development: It is quite apparent that T really enjoys imaginative play and is able to accomplish this either with others or by himself. He did not partake in any imaginative play with his sister this time; however did do some imaginative play on his own pretending to be a gymnast who was displaying his talents for a crowd, as he bowed for people when he completed a stunt on the bars or completed a handstand. He also engaged in imaginative play with the family dog pretending she was his dragon. He also is able to talk quietly to himself while playing on his own, but does not seem to be talking to a third person or imaginary friend. VIII. Cognitive Development: T understands the concept of grouping and matching as displayed when he was putting all the same lord sour patch kids together and separating them. He also noted which ones had less in each group than the others. He let those for last. He demonstrated the ability to count from 1 to 10 and demonstrated the ability to identify primary colors. He was able to answer simple questions. He was also able to identify common objects and what they are used for; for example the family dogs ball and scissors. Discussion: Integration of behavior with theory According to Piglet’s Cognitive Development Theory (Beer, 201 0, p. 31 8), both children are in the operational stage (2-7), and they behave normally. They are classified as operational children, because the definition of the operational stage is as follows; ages between 2-7, preschool children use symbols to represent their early sentiments discoveries. The development of language and make-believe play takes place; however, thinking lacks the logic of the two remaining stages. T is a very active child. He has been in pre kindergarten over the last year and has been very socialized between school, extra-curricular activities, playground and playmates with friends. He is on a soccer team as well and enjoys this very much his mother says. T was quite active on the play centre this afternoon, especially on the hanging bars showing off his ability to hang upside down. He also displayed his ability to swing on the swings while standing on the swing instead of sitting on it. He is quite a daring child. He was engaging in make-believe play acting as though he was doing these stunts for an audience as after each stunt he would get up and bow to the imaginary audience. M was happily swinging on the swing set, petting her dog, doing somersaults in the grass and drawing in the mud with a stick. She has the ability to keep herself busy and is happy to do so. She also enjoyed make-believe play with her brother playing a sword fight. Make-believe play increases in sophistication during the pre-school years (Beer, 2010, p. 318). M used her stick as her â€Å"sword† during the sword fight and as her â€Å"magic wand† later on during the observation. This demonstrates her ability to coordinate her make-believe roles and pretend with less realistic toys (Beer, 2010, p. 318). M and T were both using the play center together happily. M fell off her swing and T went up and hit M for no reason and walked over to K, the family dog. T hugs K quite roughly and says â€Å"You’re my mummy bear† and walks away. I have noted on both occasions during these observations that T displays a bit of aggression. According to Freud, play can have a cathartic effect, as children try to rid themselves of traumatic events or negative feelings through play. T asks his mother, â€Å"Mom, do you have to work today? His mother says â€Å"No, not today’. T asks â€Å"Why†? His mother answers, â€Å"Because have the day foot spend time with you and your sister†. T says, â€Å"Okay, I like that†. His language and understanding of language is well formed and has good sentence structure for his stage in development. His has no beech or grammatical issues. He asks â€Å"why† questions and understands the meaning to the answers to simple questions and answers. M told her brother â€Å"l want to be alone†. Her brother did not leave her alone. M turned to him and said, â€Å"l told you, want to be alone†! This demonstrates M’s ability to verbalize her feelings and has a solid awareness of what she is feeling and thinking and is able to share it with others readily. During the sword fight, M said â€Å"you be the sword, I will be the gun†. T did not like this role change and disagreed. M said, â€Å"No! I am the gun, you are the sword†. She continued to e a gun, which seemed to anger T and he started hitting M with his sword. M screamed and T got in trouble with his mother. M was able to assign roles; however was not able to negotiate well, which is usually indicated during the operational stage. On the play center, M was swinging on the swing and T was on the bar hanging upside down beside her. M calls T a â€Å"poppy pants†. T gets off the bar and hits her swing with his sword. M screams. T goes back to the bar. M calls T a â€Å"party pants†. T hits M’s swing with the sword again. M screams again and calls out to her mom. Mom ignores this. M continues to all T a â€Å"party pants† repeatedly. T starts hitting M’s swing again, as M is screaming. This goes on for five minutes (timed). Mom finally tells T to stop and tells him that if he hits her swing one more time, his sword will be taken away. M proceeds to call T a â€Å"party pants† again. T hesitates to do anything and looks over at mom who is ignoring the situation. M continues to taunt T. Finally, T hits M’s swing and M screams. It’s sword is taken away. T asks mom why M is not in trouble for calling him a â€Å"party pants†. Mom does not respond and walks away. M calls T a â€Å"party pants† one last time and leaves the swing. She runs overt mom and gives her a hug and kiss and says â€Å"I love you mommy’. The mother used presentation of punishment to decrease It’s undesirable behavior. The warning and punishment had a positive and negative response. The positive response was that the behavior was stopped. The negative response was that only one undesirable behavior was punished and stopped. When parents treat their children differently by directly varying amounts Of discipline to the two children, sibling relations are likely to be more conflicting and less friendly if children view these differences as unfair, which I believe T did by his reaction. I found this to be concerning, considering It’s amount of aggression he displays in his make-believe play. M also showed a lack of moral reasoning and did not show that she was not aware of It’s feelings. M takes her small Barbie’s out her purse and other figurines and groups all the Barbie’s together and all the figurines together, which displays the ability to draw appropriate inferences about these objects and shows normal categorization, as with the puzzle she was doing with her mother at the table. M and her brother pretend to hit the family dog with their swords and at times actually hit the dog. They also pretend to cut the dog up with their swords. These behaviors demonstrate animistic thinking believing that their inanimate object (sword) has lifelike qualities and intentions. According to Pigged, because young children egocentrically assign human purposes to physical events, magical thinking is common during the preschool years, (Beer, 2010, p. 321). Conclusion I enjoyed observing these children very much. I have watched them grow and change over the last three years. I find M very animated and interesting to observe and find T very in touch with his emotions and struggles with them at times. He is very athletic and determined. The reason I chose the children’s home environment is because I felt their own surroundings would be a good way to see what their normal daily routines would be and to see how they interact with family members. I found the backyard a bit limiting and would not choose this setting again. Even though I did not find it was a great setting, did manage to collect some good data. As a mother and grandmother, I did find it hard sometimes during these observations not to jump in and say something to the mother when she was ignoring certain behaviors or when her children clearly just needed some attention. So it was hard at times not to interact with the children. However, I knew I had to control that urge as my role was to observe nothing more. I have learned how to observe and evaluate a child in the operational stage. I have learned what milestones to look for and where a child between the ages of 2 to 7 should be developmentally. It gave me a better understanding to physically do the exercise rather than just reading a textbook I see the value in observing two different children, as not all children are alike in development and behavior. Ideally, a different setting for each hill would have been preferred; however this family is moving in a week and their home is full of moving boxes, so I settled for the backyard with both children. How to cite Child Observation Report, Essays

Wednesday, April 29, 2020

The great depression and the new deal

Table of Contents Introduction The Cause of the great depression Effects of the great depression Reactions to the great depression The New Deal (ND) Conclusion Work Cited Introduction The Great Depression (GD) of 1929-40s refers to the collapse of the world economy. It was normally caused by the collapse of the stock market. During this epoch high levels of unemployment dominated the world thus the closure of a myriad of businesses (Rauchway 105) .Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The great depression and the new deal specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Although it had no significant impact in some countries around the globe, cases of countries such as the US was severe (Hillstrom 11). This left a large proportion of individuals jobless. In addition, the majority of them lost high valued properties and became homeless. It was therefore, necessary that, the government to compensate the affected individual s. The government accomplished this by devising a strategy aimed at averting the situation. A number of prominent members in the government devised numerous new deals. This was the turning point as the Americans became awake and sought for the strategies of ending the depression (Edsforth 262). A number of interested individuals brought their opinions. For instance, a democrat entitled as Glass believed in the dominance of the white, budget devoid of deficits, the statutory rights, as well as the controlled power accorded to the president. Therefore, this document will discuss the cause, effects, as well as the reactions to the great depression. The Cause of the great depression Before the economy collapsed, Americans experienced some problems, which later became the cause of the great the GD (Murphy 17). For instance, there was poor distribution of wealth resulting to the increased gap between the affluent and the poor. The poor banking system among the banks was an additional chal lenge. This is because banks were in favor of some sectors. Unfavorable balance of payments deficits dominated the entire economy, resulting to more imports than exports hence the US turned into a creditor nation. There was also the general increase of the price of commodities in the stock exchange market. This culminated into a vast wealth accumulation among the capital class (Murphy 112). There also existed some ignorance of the less speculative economic indicators leading to high investments among the capitalists (Hillstromn 109). The gambling of commodities created a high inflation and this weakened the economy expansively. Financial institutions such as banks started numerous loan facilities in favor of stock- buyers. This was because stocks were selling at a good price than the other commodities in the market. In addition, the banks allowed capitalists to use stock as security for loans. In case the value of stock goes down, the financial institutions have less value security of loans taken by capitalists.Advertising Looking for research paper on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This would therefore, mean that financial institutions remain with less monetary items. This is indicative that productive businesses would not thrive, and mortgages would foreclose. As a result, bankruptcy among the business people heightened due to the collapse of the stock exchange used by a large proportion of individuals as short cut to becoming wealthy. There was an immense panic among people since they had lost confidence in their savings. The panic resulted from the investment of client’s savings on the stocks. The closure of the stock exchange market meant that banks experienced a high level of withdrawals thus their closure. A great market crash was therefore, experienced in late October 1920. Effects of the great depression The collapse of the stock market had a profound impact on the industries. F or instance, numerous industries lost their capital in the market crash. Moreover, some industries lost their capital due to bank’s closures. Consequently, capitalists had to reduce the working duration sometimes, as well as the worker’s wage bill. This resulted to low purchasing among the customers, as well as a reduced spending on luxurious commodities. Conversely, the reduced spending among the customers meant low demand of workforce. This further led to a reduction of the number of workers, and their wage bill. Drastically after the cost reduction measures, a myriad of businesses could not thrive leading their eventual closure. Lastly, the workers lost their jobs. Consequently, the unemployment rate escalated the ratio of dependency. Reactions to the great depression After the collapse of the economy, Americans sought a solution for the economic crash. Some Americans blamed President Hoover while others targeted the financial institutions and businesspersons. The c ollapse of the economy was not only attributed to one side, but to all structures of the American’s economy (Marsh 25). The government responded in several ways. First, President Herbert, the President of the time in the US refused to intervene on the people’s behalf. He regarded the government intervention as a moral decay of the American person. He further argued that, during such a difficult situation in a country, proper strategic measures are crucial in curbing the situation. Though forced by the congress to show his concern on the crash, he remained reluctant. This was due to his concern of balancing the national budget. More importantly, he was against violating his principles. He conducted spending in order to stabilize the business sector.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The great depression and the new deal specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He was encouraged by the fact that regai ned prosperity calm the poor majority, who in turn they behaved unwillingly in waiting. Consequently, due to his uncaring nature, he was later defeated in a preceding elections of 1932 by Franklin D. Roosevelt. During the campaigns, Franklin had promised to respond appropriately in order to mitigate the depression. While in office, he carefully followed his advisors instructions and developed programmes aimed at recovering the economy. He later launched the politics of the New Deal, which was a measure of essential conservation. The New Deal was to redeem capitalism and the key economic institutions of US from the dangerous depression. The New Deal (ND) In the first deal, the Tennessee valley Authority (TVA) of 1933 reflected on the incoming liberal means of the second ND. The TVA provided the required funds to transform the economies of seven depressed states a together with the Tennessee River. This entailed the construction of dams, power making, as well as the flood and soil ero sion control. The above construction activities were relatively high wage jobs (Edsfoth 264). Sources have shown that this is a socialism ideology. Other sources have regarded them as a proper way of solving social and economic problems. The second ND (1935-40S), aimed at ending the depression by spending in all economic activities. This increased the number of consumers, hence a higher demand for commodities. The resultant effect is a high spending hence economic growth. Conclusion Since economic depression, results from preventable factors, there, therefore, need to find appropriate prevention measures. First low spending by both consumers and the government demands improvement. The government, therefore, should use its huge financial power; inform of taxation and spending, as a precautionary measure to stabilize the economy. The increased spending needs emphasis in order to deal with depression adequately. This is crucial in the prevention of cases allied with the economic crash. Work Cited Edsforth, Ronald. The New deal: America’s response to the great depression .Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell, 2000. Print. Marsh, Carole. The great depression and the new deal. Peachtree, GA: Gallopade International. Peachtree, 2005. Print.Advertising Looking for research paper on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Murphy, Robert. The politically incorrect guide to the great depression and the new deal. New York, NY: Regnery publishing, 2009. Print. Rauchway, Eric. The great depression: A very short introduction. New York, NY: Oxford University press, 2008. Print. This research paper on The great depression and the new deal was written and submitted by user SisterGrimm to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Prove cathartic Essays

Prove cathartic Essays Prove cathartic Paper Prove cathartic Paper Aristotle wrote in Poetics that tragedy should contain incidents arousing pity and fear and thus prove cathartic for an audience. To what extent does the plot of Arthur Millers play, All My Sons allow for this? Arthur Miller (1915-2005) in All My Sons (1947), journeys the key concept of catharsis through the intricate character of Joe Keller; our tragic hero and his hubris flaw, the concept of Hamartia, the generating of pathos through language and most importantly the formula of tragedy, described by Aristotle, bringing about catharsis. All My Sons starts at the end of summer in suburban America, after World War Two. The events of the play, described by Miller, occur on a single set, the backyard of the Keller home, a secluded atmosphere, considerably the American Dream. Furthermore there stands the stump of an apple tree, as its trunk and branches lie toppled beside it1. Miller here, emotionally engages us into the play with the use of pathetic fallacy, increasing our emotions by building tension and giving opportunity to the futures of tragedy. The audience no longer feel safe behind the American Dream but instead are presented with a faade of respect, somewhere much sinister , preparing the audience for the upcoming tragedy. Miller uses this same technique again when Joe Keller, our protagonist, notifies: Gonna rain tonight. 2 Miller builds fear in the audience, suggesting something unpleasant about to happen. Nevertheless as the audience learn more about Joe Keller, we see that he is an ego-centric man, whose mental attitude does not go beyond his own sphere. Where society is dysfunctional, Kellers choice simply remains to ignore them and their changing platforms: heres a guy is lookin for two Newfoundland dogs. Now whats he want with two Newfoundland dogs? . The audience in turn pity for Kellers character, understanding his lack of knowledge in relation to the macrocosm therefore leading us towards what may be a cathartic experience. Perhaps different audiences react differently to Keller as a character. It is debatable that Keller does not understand the subtleties of life because he is lazy, selfish and his outlook is materialistic, therefore perchance building exasperation in the audience and receiving no compassion. Or perhaps as an audience we become harsh and forget to realise that Joe Keller is financially comfortable. But beyond this the audience still pity Kellers inertia as he struggles to move on. Similarly Kate Keller cannot move beyond the inertia she is trapped within. She is in denial about Larrys death which has driven her to spirituality, her emotional crutch: Hes not dead, so theres no argument! 4 This makes the audience pity her sub-conscious state and empathise with her hope for Larrys return. It could be argued as to what extent we can cope with her denial and her rejection of reality. Progression sees Miller introduce us to the bliss of hope, this is important to the cathartic journey, as we hope for some re-alignment of morality or achievement of justice. Hope is first presented through Frank Lubey, a superstitious character, who brings us closer towards catharsis through the melancholic life he lives and the hope he brings within the play for fellow characters, besides the hope the audience already bear: (Looks up at the sky) These stage directions are evidence of Franks hope and transcendence into a world of his own. Nevertheless, Chris Keller is a warm man who cares for his father and becomes Millers mouthpiece in demonstrating the world beyond the Keller home. He strives for independence and security but constantly gets held back from his parents and is put into an inertia of his own: every time I reach out for something I want, I have to pull back because other people will suffer. 5 This is part of Millers plot where pathos allows the audience to feel emotions of pity evoked by Chriss helplessness and thus prove cathartic. The audience also fear as to what step Chris might take in the future because of his suffering: Ill get out. Ill get married and live some place else. Maybe in New York. 6 The audience also empathise with Chris, as the family secret prevents him from breaking free and therefore the audience hope for Chris life to be re-aligned and end happily with his marriage to Ann. However this news arouses trepidation in the audience and characters because they do not understand as to how Kate might react because of her fragile state and her stubborn will. This is evident through Kellers dialogue and Millers apprehensive language: Well, you want to be sure Mother isnt going to -7. At the very end of Act One the audience are left feeling a strong sense of fear for Joe Keller when he is made aware of George Deevers return. The audience understand Kellers vulnerability and his lack in understanding the complexities of life therefore he sees no harm in Georges return, but is it debateable as to whether Keller might know how much of a risk it could be on a sub-conscious level and as to what George might be here for? Miller has made this is evident through the stage directions, exemplifying the fear: (frightened, but angry): Yes, Im sure. The fear left with the audience to experience at the end of Act One becomes pivotal in the role of experiencing catharsis. Miller has instantaneously given us the opportunity to empathise with the characters and in turn fear for them thus we are given a sense of foreboding, vital for ultimately experiencing catharsis in any tragedy. In the opening stage directions of Act Two Miller, again, uses pathetic fallacy to suggest the progression in the plot and perhaps the catastrophe still to come suggested metaphorically by Miller: leaving stump standing alone 9 Though as the play progresses a growing sense of anxiety is created in the audience by Miller. We can see this through Sue Bayliss a character chosen by Miller to represent the wider community. This lets the audience fear even more for Joe Keller as a character because it becomes apparent that not everybody overlooks his guilt: Theres not a person on the block who doesnt know the truth. 10 In Act Two Miller finally decides to present a rush of emotions which soon psychologically engage the audience as well as the characters Chris, Ann and George. Millers use of short, forceful sentences build tension and anxiety in the audience that we soon become eager to reach some sort of resolution, where inner peace can be found. This is witnessed through Georges dialogue and we soon learn to identify with Georges character because we recognize his impatience to reach a cathartic ending: But the morning passed. No sign of Joe. So Dad called again. 11 Georges transcendental state also suggests trouble constructing an impression of fear upon the audience: (Calling as George pays no attention ). Considering Georges character we could deduce that he is a caricature used by Miller to start the tragedy and thus the journey to catharsis. After the anxiety we experience, Kates sudden entrance to the involvement of catharsis builds tension and hope for resolution. But then Miller entraps us into a network of terror once more when Kate slips her tongue disproving Kellers alibi, this brings hope for Chris and George as we, the audience, hope that they will find out the truth and move on out of the inertia: He hasnt been laid up in fifteen years.

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Formal Charge Example Problem

Formal Charge Example Problem Resonance structures are all the possible Lewis structures for a molecule. Formal charge is a technique to identify which resonance structure is the more correct structure. The most correct Lewis structure will be the structure where the formal charges are evenly distributed throughout the molecule. The sum of all the formal charges should equal the total charge of the molecule.Formal charge is the difference between the number of valence electrons of each atom and the number of electrons the atom is associated with. The equation takes the form:FC eV - eN - eB/2whereeV number of valence electrons of the atom as if it were isolated from the moleculeeN number of unbound valence electrons on the atom in the moleculeeB number of electrons shared by the bonds to other atoms in the moleculeThe two resonance structures in the above picture are for carbon dioxide, CO2. To determine which diagram is the correct one, the formal charges for each atom must be calculated.For Structure A:eV fo r oxygen 6eV for carbon 4To find eN, count the number of electron dots around the atom. eN for O1 4eN for C 0eN for O2 4To find eB, count the bonds to the atom. Each bond is formed by two electrons, one donated from each atom involved in the bond. Multiply each bond by two to get the total number of electrons.eB for O1 2 bonds 4 electronseB for C 4 bonds 8 electronseB for O2 2 bonds 4 electronsUse these three values to calculate the formal charge on each atom. Formal charge of O1 eV - eN - eB/2Formal charge of O1 6 - 4 - 4/2Formal charge of O1 6 - 4 - 2Formal charge of O1 0Formal charge of C eV - eN - eB/2Formal charge of C1 4 - 0 - 4/2Formal charge of O1 4 - 0 - 2Formal charge of O1 0Formal charge of O2 eV - eN - eB/2Formal charge of O2 6 - 4 - 4/2Formal charge of O2 6 - 4 - 2Formal charge of O2 0For Structure B:eN for O1 2eN for C 0eN for O2 6Formal charge of O1 eV - eN - eB/2Formal charge of O1 6 - 2 - 6/2Formal charge of O1 6 - 2 - 3Formal charge of O1 1Formal charge of C eV - eN - eB/2Formal charge of C1 4 - 0 - 4/2Formal charge of O1 4 - 0 - 2Formal charge of O1 0Formal charge of O2 eV - eN - eB/2Formal charge of O2 6 - 6 - 2/2Formal charge of O2 6 - 6 - 1Formal charge of O2 -1All the formal charges on Structure A equal zero, where the formal charges on Structure B show one end is positively charged and the other is negatively charged. Since the overall distribution of Structure A is zero, Structure A is th e most correct Lewis structure for CO2.

Monday, February 17, 2020

Uses of Force by Chicago, New York, La police Research Paper

Uses of Force by Chicago, New York, La police - Research Paper Example Uses of Force by Chicago, New York, La police As maintainers of law and order in the public, police officers should be more cautious on the way they handle people in the public. From sociological and psychological view point, modern study scrutinizes on the determinants of police use of force using data gathered by Garner and Maxwell in 1996- 1997.The information herein entailed the adult custody arrests in six urban law enforcement agencies in the U.S. Dissimilar to most of the recent studies; the degree of force is extended to comprise threat of force as well as varied levels of physical force. The results have revealed strong and reliable evidence that probability os using force and the quantity of force used by the police largely is dependent on what the suspect commits rather than who the suspect is, even after controlling for other factors. The way a suspect is handled and the conduct towards the police seems as the most essential factor explaining the use of force behavior. The results obtained also reveals the effects of race and the gender relations as well as the occurrence of eyewitness and other officers on the outlook. Police use of force The na ture of police to citizen encounter may vary from civil to very fiery, and this may entail both verbal and physical conflict. Acknowledging that characteristics of such nature may encounter alongside with the behaviors of the officers and suspects is essential to comprehend the factors impacting police use of force. All over the world, policing entails and at times demands some amount of force. Bittner (1975) accentuates on this aspect of police work and, moreover, affirms that police are nothing else but a mechanism for the dissemination of situational acceptable force in the society. The law and enforcement officers, are required to use force in particular circumstances, are trained in the use of force, and, in general, encounter numerous situations on their due course of duty when the use of force is required. For instance, in arresting wrongdoers, averting escape, putting into custody the disorderly participants, or when safeguarding themselves and the blameless victims from get ting injured. As it has been confirmed by Skolnick and Fyfe (1993, p. 37), â€Å"as long as the public continues defying law and order, and resist arrest, use of force by the police remains inevitable. Even though the use of force by the police has been significant inn averting and regulating law and order in the society, it has however contributed to alarming rate of social and legal consequences amid the police and the public. This is an aspect that has predominantly resulted towards studying on this essential topic and would enrich our knowledge towards an efficient comprehension in this area of study. Recent research carried out on police use of force reveals that police use force rarely (Adams, 1999; Friedrich, 1980; Garner, Buchanan, Schade, & Hepburn, 1996; Garner & Maxwell, 1999; Worden, 1996). Whether indicated by authorized use of force, (Alpert & Dunham, 1999), the complaints of the citizens, those surveying the officers, the arrestees, citizens or the observational meth ods the recorded data constantly reveal that only a minor portion of police – public relations makes use of force. On the other hand, the encounter amid of the police and the citizen, in which police officers frequently are compelled to make swift decisions may generate inappropriate or unnecessary use of force that may ruin and lower the repute of police authority and authenticity in the public. Among the different theoretical orientations used to explain police use of force, Terrill and Mastrofski (2002) identifies a particular sociological and psychological perspective that